- The fact of the accident. By the accident is understood an accident, fire from neighbors, the Bay Apartments, falling trees, etc. The fact of the accident confirms the certificate from the traffic police, the operating company (ECD, housing office, housing department, etc.) or Fire Service and etc.
- Fact of the cause of damage to property of the plaintiff. The fact of causing material damage to property is also confirmed by a certificate from the authorized institutions.
- The size of the damage caused to the plaintiff, as a result of the accident. The amount of damage (estimates for the refurbishment) is confirmed by the evaluation report and the cost is determined by an independent appraisal organization, with approximate calculations of the damage on the basis of the court – an expert opinion, which is expert appraiser.
- The presence of the defendant’s guilt in causing the damage.
The defendant’s guilt is confirmed by certificates from authorized agencies.
- A causal relationship between the action (or inaction) of the defendant and the harm.
- The size of the costs and the order of their allocation between the parties.
Circumstances listed in the six points prove the plaintiff. All court costs are recoverable.
Procedure for assessment of damage and its recovery. In general, the procedure for compensation can be represented as the integrated algorithm: sign the contract for the provision of valuation services with an independent evaluation organization and inspection of damage caused by the object evaluation, receiving the evaluation report. Composing and sending pre-trial claims party to the accident, preparation and transfer to the court a statement of claim with the application of all the documents necessary for the proceedings, as described in A Computer Program for Explosive Damage Assessment of Conventional Buildings.
“Registered professional civil and structural engineers and licensed architects will examine your structural failures, water intrusion, environmental damages and construction defects. Armed with non destructive equipment such as infrared and borescopic cameras, and fiberscope snake-like video equipment for examination of pipes and limited access spaces, our investigators can detect abnormal conditions without removal of materials. Our repair design and drawing services give you exactly the information you need to obtain permits and get your building repaired the right way.”, as described in Building Damage Assessment/ Construction defect. The defects and failures may include Construction Defect Investigation & Analysis, Plumbing Failures, Materials Analysis, Electrical Systems Flooring Materials, Seismic Analysis, Water Leaks, Testing, Heaters, Window and Door Failures, Soil Investigation and Damage Evaluation.
Damage assessment – is an important procedure that determines the size of direct losses resulting from damage to, seizure or loss of any property, as well as counting the cost of the repair work and the calculation of possible compensation for costs incurred and, therefore, profits. Professional independent assessment of damage is required as a result of the transfer of natural disasters, fires, the Gulf of apartments, accident, theft, in property disputes, etc.
Assessment of the property – this calculation is the current market value of ownership (lease) of a specific property. We offer an extensive range of services to real estate appraisals, commercial orientation, including an assessment of industrial, public and administrative buildings, as well as real estate appraisal of residential premises such as apartments, houses and rooms, cottages, etc. In addition, the range of services in real estate appraisal, it includes the calculation of the cost of storage, retail, office, land appraisal, as stated in Advice for Hurricane, Flood, Storm & Fire Damage Assessment, Safety, Emergency Services.
Assessment of business – is a complex structured process for calculating the actual value of the company and represents a wide range of services, including the factors. Production levels, step by step have the description of industry, the cost of tangible and intangible assets, assessment of gross income, the market competitiveness of enterprises, etc. In fact, business valuation determines a property owner for the calculation of the company and serves as the foundation for its profitable business. The customer may require a complete peer review of business – the official record for any legal action or is there a need to make a true assessment of informal businesses. If the first case, the assessment of business is in strict accordance with the Law on Appraisal Activity, the second will be sufficient negotiations with the owner to determine the necessary actions and requirements, as stated in Building Damage Assessment Report.
The automated comparison of before-and-after remote-sensing imagery provides an effective means for rapid and widespread assessment of windstorm damage to individual buildings. The development of automated damage-assessment algorithms involves the classification of building damage signatures from a remote-sensing perspective, the identification of corresponding temporal change metrics, and the correlation of remote-sensing change signatures with actual field-based damage observations. Hurricanes Charley (August 2004) and Ivan (September 2004) were marked the first major hurricanes for which high-resolution satellite images were available. These storms provided an exceptional set of before-and- after images. Investigators from Texas Tech University and ImageCat, Inc. obtained temporal satellite image sequences and performed associated ground-truthing damage surveys for these major hurricanes. There are chronicles of the use of the before-and-after hurricane imagery to develop remote-sensing-based damage scales for various building inventories; the correlation of remote-sensing damage metrics with field-based damage investigations, and the progress in automated damage assessment using temporal image sequences.
“A comprehensive range of in-situ test and inspection instrumentation is available including devices to detect where and to what extent structural integrity has been impaired in areas remote from the source of the fire or explosion. Such tests can extend to measurement of the spread of corrosive constituents of smoke and hot gas emissions and even to the determination of the residual security of individual fixings which have been affected by shock and whose present condition is uncertain”, as described in Building Damage Assessment – Earthquake, fire and explosion.
For example, if to take Post-Earthquake Building Damage Assessment, it can be said that Assessment stages have to be created. They are:
Search & Rescue: focus on safety of buildings for extraction of entombed victims and safety of rescuers. Safety focus on the safety of a building for continued occupancy, without regard to the extent of nonstructural damage.
Damage: focus on the determination of the nature, extent, and appropriate repair of earthquake damage.
Damage Assessment Eq – Purpose of Post: Confirm safety assessment, Document damage, Determine significance of damage, Provide basis for decision on what to do about, and Damage.
3. Management Methods Provided Based on Existing Standards and Best Practices
Management methods are important components that are based in existing standards and best practices in building damage assessment. A damage assessment form was completed for each surveyed building. The completed form provides a record of the construction characteristics and performance of each assessed structure. In the comment section of the form, miscellaneous observations were recorded along with notes explaining non-typical conditions or unusual damage. Damage to chimneys was also recorded in the comment section and unfortunately can only be used to provide anecdotal observations. Photographs were taken of each assessed property. For each category listed on the survey form, earthquake damage was graded according to four basic levels of severity, as follows:
- NONE – no visible damage;
- LOW – components are stressed, but in functional condition;
- MODERATE – evidence of severe stress, permanent deflection, or near failure in
any structural component; and
- HIGH – partial or complete failure of any structural component.
In order to standardize the assignment of damage ratings by different teams, all teams graded several selected buildings and compared notes before commencing the survey. This exercise, conducted on the first day, helped the teams to develop a uniform approach to grading the severity of damage for each category on the survey form. Ten SFD homes and one MFLR building were used for this purpose. During the course of the survey, communication was maintained between teams to further insure against inconsistencies in grading.
“There are many causes of building damage, for example ground motion, liquefaction, ground failure and others. The assessment methods for building damage due to ground motion are introduced separately for “wooden building” and “non-wooden building”.”, as described in Assessment of building damage due to ground motion.
There are the following types of construction expertise: assessment of damage from the Gulf of apartments, offices, shops, offices, buildings, assessment of fire damage; inspection of buildings, structures, premises, bad accidents, fires; examination at redevelopment of premises (apartments, offices, shops); examination when resuming construction in progress; survey when buying a building or premises in the building; preparation of construction cost estimates (including credit), and estimates for repairs; real estate assessment (assessment of buildings and structures); validation of budgeting; checked that the estimates for the construction project; damage assessment for insurance purposes, including when the insured event; technical inspection of buildings to monitor their condition during routine and special inspections. The experts assess the quality builders of all types of damage from the Bay (flooded / flood, leak or fire) and conduct pre-trial or judicial construction and technical expertise to the cost of damage to your apartment, office homes, etc, as described in Damage Assessment Results and Yellow Houses Repair Strategies.
Assessment of buildings – is one of the most popular services on the market today. Most often assessment of the building is ordered to obtain a bank loan or determining the property value for an insurance company. Also often an assessment of buildings for capital contributions and performances are on the balance of the company. The specialists of our company in the performance evaluation of the evaluation of the building can be defined as the cost per square meter of the building, and the cost of rents.
In assessing the desirable is made to provide the appraiser access to buildings or offices. As a result of visual inspection, the appraiser can get the data that are missing in the provided documents that can not be taken into account in drafting the evaluation report. Estimating the cost of buildings includes the process of collecting information on non-residential real estate market. It is necessary to pay special attention when selecting analogues on the building type, for example, embedded or standalone, location, engineering, parking available, at what rightfully belongs to the land (the lease, ownership), condition of the building. Evaluation of the building can be carried out in respect of buildings, industrial, social or cultural purposes, as stated in Structural damage assessment.
Assessment of buildings can be conducted: for sale; at the time of the building for rent; assessment of buildings for collateral; at trial; if introduced into the charter capital; assessment of buildings for tax purposes; for insurance of the building; transfer of buildings for operational control; and when making other economic decisions.
“Damage assessment reports should include the following: availability of water, electricity, utilities, etc, functioning of sanitation system, damaged water lines and plumbing fixtures, distinct or unusual odors, compromised electrical outlets/systems, roof leaks, damaged windows, doors and ceiling tiles, wet carpet on flooded areas, or fallen trees or obstructions to, or within buildings”, as stated in Building Damage Assessment.
4. Management Issues, based on existing Standards and Practices.
Management in the broadest sense means a development (simulation), creating and maximizing the use of socio-economic systems at different levels. Management (in the narrow sense) defines management of social and economic systems, including manufacturing. The main functions of management are planning, organization, motivation, communication, development processes and decision-making control. The relationship of these functions is determined by the fact that you can not manage unorganized systems, that is, the better organized the company, the less it needs to be managed. The concept of “management” also refers to leadership and management at various levels in the enterprise. The concept of “manager” roughly corresponds to the outdated Russian concept of “steward”.
All the damage has to be analyzed and evaluated for the further solution. As the population of the United States continues to expand in areas of high seismic activity, the increasing exposure to personal injury and property damage from earthquakes demands our exacting attention. The destruction caused by California’s 1994 Northridge Earthquake provides a recent reminder of this concern. Yet, the destruction reaches far beyond physical damage, leaving lasting emotional and economic changes for people and communities during a long and difficult reconstruction process, as described in Grasshoppers: Life Cycle, Damage Assessment and Management Strategy.
For example, Assessment of Damage to Residential Buildings Caused by the Northridge Earthquake evaluates the performance of houses experiencing severe ground shaking during this earthquake. Extensive data collection, statistical analysis, and observations provide a realistic and scientific perspective to the damage that can help guide decisions related to housing in areas of high seismic risk. Comprehensive in detail, this report also identifies the major problems in home construction that can direct productive improvements in earthquake-resistant housing. I hope that this report will be a useful resource to enhance the permanence of homes subject to earthquakes through a rational balance of important social issues—the preservation of life, property, and housing affordability, as described in Building Damage Assessment/ Construction defect.
This report presents the findings of a damage assessment survey of the San Fernando Valley housing stock following the Northridge Earthquake on January 17, 1994. The types of housing studied include single-family detached (SFD), single-family attached (SFA), and multifamily low-rise (MFLR) units up to four stories in height. “The primary purpose is to provide a statistically-based representation of the performance of residential construction relative to local construction characteristics. In addition, case studies of more extreme failures were conducted to provide insight into the causes of life-threatening performance problems.”, as stated in Assessment of Damage to Residential Buildings Caused by the Northridge Earthquake. The findings presented in this report will assist in the review of building codes relative to the local construction environment and in the development of effective hazard mitigation policy.
Historically, building performance has been reported anecdotally following natural disasters. Anecdotal reports inherently focus on the more serious failures. Although valuable information on specific types of failures can be obtained from such reports, the results are not necessarily representative of the overall performance of a large population of buildings. Modification of building codes and construction practices has historically been influenced by this incomplete view of overall building performance and occurrence of damage.
To achieve a more balanced view of housing performance following the Northridge Earthquake, a strategy was employed which utilizes basic statistical sampling methods. This useful technique, commonly used in demographic studies, increases the objectivity of post-disaster building performance assessments. A similar approach was first used in a study of residential construction performance following two major hurricanes in 1992.
In addition to this introduction, the report includes five other sections. A background section first provides the reader with a working knowledge of earthquakes as they relate to building construction, particularly homes and low-rise apartments. A brief description of the Northridge Earthquake is included. Next, the sampling method and assessment procedure are discussed. Results of the SFD survey are then presented, including a statistical assessment of the performance of the SFD housing stock, as well as case studies of more extreme damage. This is followed by a section on the characteristics and performance of MFLR and SFA homes. The closing section summarizes results of the study and offers recommendations for future consideration, as described in Structural damage assessment.
When an earthquake occurs, energy is instantaneously radiated from the hypocenter creating cyclical waves through the ground in all directions. On the ground surface, these waves radiate outward from the epicenter (located on the ground surface directly above the hypocenter). Two basic types of ground surface waves, P-waves and S-waves, result from each earthquake. There is substantial variation within the cyclical nature and duration of these wave forms which makes each earthquake somewhat unique. Differences in ground conditions, topography, and fault mechanisms, among many other things, contribute to the large variability in ground shaking resulting from earthquakes. In “weak” soil conditions, ground fissuring, soil liquefaction, or ground settlement may occur. On hillsides, landslides may occur. The P-waves or preliminary waves are the fastest to radiate from the epicenter. They travel through the ground as shock waves at very high speeds (near 18,000 mph) in a manner similar to the propagation of sound waves in the air. Because of the high velocity of these waves, the frequency is in the audible range to the human ear which explains the “rumbling” sounds associated with earthquakes. These waves do not produce the highest amplitudes of ground movement. They are in a frequency range above that which causes a detrimental reaction in buildings, and they attenuate or lessen in magnitude more rapidly than S-waves. However, the effect of S-waves in a given locality may be amplified or dampened depending on local variations in ground properties, the surrounding topography, and the magnitude of shaking in underlying bedrock. S-waves have the greatest impact on structures and, therefore, get most of the attention in design procedures to estimate seismic loads. There are several characteristics that govern the dynamic, inertial reaction of a building for a given ground motion, as described in Building Damage Assessment – Earthquake, fire and explosion. Although there are volumes of literature addressing this topic, this section summarizes only the primary issues surrounding building loads and refers the reader to other information for further details. The main building characteristics of concern include:
- building height,
- building configuration and style,
- structural geometry,
- method of connecting structural members,
- structural materials,
- non-structural materials, and
- interaction of the foundation system with the moving ground.
For a particular building, these characteristics define the building’s weight distribution, its natural period or natural frequency of vibration, its potential to dampen or amplify vibrations, and its capacity to absorb the energy imparted from cyclical ground movements. By applying classical dynamic analysis theory, engineering research, and various academic assumptions, the current seismic design procedures use these factors to estimate a building’s reaction to a simplified design ground acceleration parameter known as effective peak acceleration. Because the vertical ground acceleration components of earthquakes are comparatively low, the effective peak acceleration represents only horizontal accelerations. The dynamic building reaction is finally defined in terms of an equivalent static load by use of simple Newtonian mechanics (e.g., F = ma) and modifying factors to account for actual building response in comparison to theory. When structural engineering is required, this equivalent static force approach is the favored method of determining seismic loads and designing the necessary structural resistance. For important structures, original dynamic modeling uses a selection of actual earthquake records may be applied directly to the structural analog of the proposed building, as described in Post – Earthquake.
The effective peak acceleration is derived from response spectra analyses of actual earthquake seismograph records grouped by similar soil conditions. A response spectra is created by analyzing the response of a simple elastic mass-spring-damper system when subject to a digitized seismograph record through dynamic computer modeling algorithms. From this analysis, the maximum response accelerations (peak spectral accelerations) of the mass are recorded for variations in the natural frequency of the modeled mass-spring-damper system. The response spectra are then plotted using only the peak spectral acceleration for each variation in the natural frequency of the elastically modeled system. From the response spectra plot, averaged peak spectral accelerations are estimated for ranges of natural frequencies considered applicable to buildings. As a final step, these values are divided by 2.5 to convert back to an approximation of actual peak ground accelerations. The outcome is a theory-based parameter, effective peak acceleration, with limited capabilities in describing the complex nature of earthquakes and their impact on structures.
Estimated effective peak accelerations shown on seismic risk maps are used in various design procedures to establish minimum seismic loads on buildings. These maps are not based simply on historic earthquake occurrences. They are subject to statistical processes, assumptions, and adjustment by expert opinion or local experience to approximate a desired return period or recurrence interval associated with an acceptable level risk, as stated in Building Damage Assessment – Earthquake, fire and explosion.
In current practice, the design return period is 475 years which corresponds to a 10 percent chance of exceed in a 50 year period. Safety factors inherent to the design procedures and engineering practice further reduce risks of failure by effectively increasing the effective peak acceleration parameter through load combination factors, material safety factors, load duration factors, and others. In theory, the risk of structural failure may be further reduced by using a larger return period value of the effective peak acceleration. While this usually results in greater strength, structural stiffness may also be increased. However, strength increases may be offset because of the structure’s decreased capacity to absorb and dissipate energy through flexure from severe ground shaking. Background publications by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and others listed in the bibliography for more detail regarding the development earthquake design procedures and the methods used to assess earthquake risks, loads, and structural capacity or resistance.
All in all, it should be taken into consideration that standards and best practices of the building damage assessment have to be evaluated and improved. They are essential for the process of damage assessment and they help in the further analysis of the situation. An independent evaluation of the commercial real estate is held to determine the objective value of the property and the land on which it is located. Valuation of buildings necessary for carrying out transactions on the sale, liquidation of commercial real estate or property dispute resolution around the commercial real estate. The job of assessing the commercial real estate (as is the case with the evaluation of other types of real estate) is to determine the method of valuation (cost, profitability or market) and the preparation of relevant documentation according to the chosen concept.
A Computer Program for Explosive Damage Assessment of Conventional Buildings. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Advice for Hurricane, Flood, Storm & Fire Damage Assessment, Safety, Emergency Services. 2009. 22 March 2011.
Assessment of building damage due to ground motion. 2009. 22 March 2011.
Assessment of Damage to Residential Buildings Caused by the Northridge Earthquake. 1994. 22 March 2011.
Atlas of building Damage Assessment. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment/ Construction defect. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment Report. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment – Earthquake, fire and explosion. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Building Damage Assessment. 2011. 22 March 2011.
Damage Assessment Results and Yellow Houses Repair Strategies. 2011. 22 March 2011.
Grasshoppers: Life Cycle, Damage Assessment and Management Strategy. 2002. 22 March 2011.
House Mice Damage Assessment. 2008. 22 March 2011.
Post – Earthquake. 2010. 22 March 2011.
Structural damage assessment. 2005. 22 March 2011.